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     Aqeedah - Belief

The Salaf's Guide to the understanding of
al-Qadaa' wal Qadar

FATE IN ISLAAM

by
Dr.Saleh as-Saleh

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The Third Aspect of Qadar: The Will of Allaah
Al-Mashee’ah : The Will of Allaah

* It is essential to believe that Allaah has willed everything that goes on in the universe. His Will and His pre-ordaining power effectively covers everything. Whatever He Wills, will occur and whatever He does not Will, will never take place.

* Speaking about the people of the Book, Allaah warned the Prophet not to follow their desires and commanded him to follow what Allaah has brought down to him, the Qur'aan. And said, “If Allaah willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you.”

Soorah al-Maaidah (5): 48
Had Allaah wished to have us follow one Book, one legislation and one Messenger, at all times and all places, He would have done that. But Allaah willed to test his slaves with trials that distinguish between the obedient and the disobedient. He is all-Just and all-Wise in His Mashee’ah.

* A number of Qur'aanic verses, refer to the Mashee’ah of Allaah, among them…

The Prophet Ibraahim’s sayings to his people, “I fear not those whom you associate with Allaah in worship (Nothing can happen to me) except when my Rabb (Allaah) wills something. My Rabb comprehends in His Knowledge everything.”

Soorah al-An'aam (6): 80
The Prophet Shuaib said: “And it is not for us to return to it (your religion of Kufr) unless Allaah, our Rabb should will. Indeed our Rabb comprehends all things in His Knowledge. In Allaah (alone) we put our trust.”
Soorah al-A'raf (7): 89
The Prophet Ibraahim’s saying: “Enter Egypt, if Allaah wills, in security.”
Soorah Yusuf (12): 99
The Prophet Moosa said to al-Khidr: “If Allaah wills, you will find me patient, and I will not disobey you in ought.”
Soorah al-Kahf (18): 69
The Prophet Muhammed (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said: “And never say of anything that ‘I shall do such and such tomorrow’, except (with the saying) - ‘If Allaah wills!’.”
Soorah al-Kahf (18): 23-24
Allaah said about the people of al-Jannah (Paradise), “Abiding therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord wills, a gift without an end.”
Soorah Hud (11): 108
Allaah gives power to whom He wills, lifts up in honor or degrades and He alone gives victory or defeat to whom He wills, as He said: “Say (O Muhammed (salallahu alaihi wa salalam), O Allaah! Possessor of the Kingdom, You give the kingdom to whom You will, and take the kingdom from whom you will; You honor whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In your Hand is the good. Verily! You are able to do all things.”
Soorah al-Imran (3): 26
If Allaah wills, He can prevent anything from taking place: “But if it had been Allaah’s will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (i.e. the Kuffar). But He (lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are killed in the Way of Allaah, He will never let their deeds be lost.”
Soorah Muhammed (47): 4
"And such We have appointed for every Prophet an enemy, devils among mankind and jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of deception). If your Rabb had so willed, they would have not done it, so leave them alone with their fabrications.”
Soorah al-An'aam (6): 112
“If we had willed, We would have given each person his guidance.”
Soorah As-Sajdah (32): 13
"What Allaah does not will shall never take place: “Say (O Muhammed (salallahu alaihi wa salalam), If Allaah has so willed, I should not have recited it to you nor would He have made it known to you.”
Soorah Yunus (10): 16
If Allaah wills, He can seal the heart from guidance. Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin al-‘Aas said, that he heard Allaah’s Messenger saying, “All the hearts of the offspring of Aadam are between two fingers of Ar-Rehman’s Fingers, as one heart. He turns it (in any direction) as He wills. Then Allaah’s Messenger said, “O Allaah! The Turner of the hearts, turn our heart towards Your obedience.”
Saheeh Muslim vol.4, p.1397, no.6418
Man’s will is true and real, but it does not escape Allaah’s will, as He says: “And they will not receive admonition unless Allaah wills.”
Soorah al-Muddaththir (74): 56
“And you cannot will unless Allaah wills. Verily! Allaah is ever all-Knowing, all-Wise.”
Soorah al-Insan (76): 30
* The above evidences from the Qur'aan and Sunnah confirm the absolute Mashee’ah (universal will) of Allaah, as well as the will of humans, and that the later is not independent from Allaah’s will. Allaah tells us that everything in the Universe is by His will, and what He did not will, would not take place. He also confirms that if He wills, the outcome would be different from what exists. If He wills He would not be disobeyed, and that He would have gathered His creation on guidance - making them one nation. This is because, He is the only Owner and the only Rabb, as He says:

“Verily, your Rabb creates whatever He wills and chooses.”

Soorah al-Qasas (28): 68
 “And We cause whom We will, to remain in the wombs for an appointed term.”
Soorah al-Hajj (22): 5
 “To Allaah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth, He creates what He wills. He bestows female (offspring) upon whom He wills, and bestows male (offspring) upon whom He wills, or He bestows both males and females, and He renders barren whom He wills. He is all-Knowing, all-Able.”
Soorah ash-Shura (42): 50
 “Allaah guides to His Light whom He wills.”
Soorah an-Nur (24): 35
 “Verily! Allaah does what He wills.”
Soorah al-Hajj (22): 14
 “And whomsoever Allaah wills to guide, He opens His breast to Islaam, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky.”
Soorah al-An'aam (6): 125
Ibn Abbas said: “It means that Allaah opens up one’s heart for the acceptance of and belief in Tawheed.” See Tafseer Ibn Katheer for the quoted verse

On the other hand, whomsoever He wills to lead astray, He would make his chest strictly closed from knowing Allaah and loving Him. “This is a Just punishment for those who do not properly estimate Allaah, and those who deny Allaah’s favors. Allaah shuts the doors of His Guidance to them and this is why their breasts become confined and restricted.. The Guidance is a favor from Allaah; He makes it settle in the person who is suitable to recognize it and give thanks to his Creator, by obeying Him and worshipping Him alone.”

Shifaa’ul Aleel, vol.1, p.274-278

Understanding Mashee’ah (Will) and Iradah (What Allaah wants):
In order to understand correctly the relation between Mashee’ah and Iradah, two terms need to be explained; ? Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah ? Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah

1.  Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah or the Universal will:
It is the will (Mashee’ah) of Allaah in which His intention is carried out. It is not necessary that all actions of His creation are liked by Him, rather many of their acts are disliked by Him, but He willed for them to pass. This is Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah.
For Example: Allaah created Shaitaan, yet He hates him. Likewise, He created the Kuffar, but He hates them. Whatever Allaah permits to exist, does not mean that He loves them. This is Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah (or Universal will). Under this will, Allaah may decree to pass things which He does not command His slaves to follow (like Kuffr and disobedience).

2.  Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah or Judicial will:
It is that which is in accordance with Allaah’s legislation. It is related to what Allaah likes, whether it takes place or not.
For Example: The acts of obedience from the angels, prophets and believers are loved by Allaah and are passed by His Universal will. Under Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah it is not necessary that His commands will be executed. The Kuffar rebel against Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah.

TABLE. 1
Mashee’ah or Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah  Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah 
Pertinent to Allaah’s creation and command Pertinant to Allaah’s Lesiglation and Sharee’ah (commands and ordinances)
Allaah passes what He wills. It is not necessary that He likes what He creates, or what is being carried out. Shaytaan is created ans Allaah hates him and his followers. He hates and dislikes their deeds too. But they take place because He willed so. He does not command his slaves to follow what He dislikes.  It is only that which Allaah loves and likes..
No creature can escape this Universal will of Allaah His legislative commands are rebelled against by the Kuffar and the disobedient. He loves righteousness but not everybody complies

TABLE. 2
CASE Mashee’ah 
or 
al-Iradah Kawniyyah
Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah 
Existing acts of Obedience He willed to pass He loves them
Non-Existing acts of Obedience He willed not to pass He loves them
Existing acts of Kuffr and disbelief He willed to pass He dislikes them
Non-Existing acts of Kuffr and disbelief He willed not to pass He dislikes them

* The relation between Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah and the Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah is clear from the following verse: “And He likes not Kuffr for His slaves.”

Soorah az-Zumar (39): 7
So it is obvious that Allaah does not like or love Kuffr, yet it exists. This deals with Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah. It is linked to the Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah by the fact that Allaah willed for Kufr to take place. What He likes or dislikes, is different from His will (Mashee’ah).

* The True believer follows, does not dispute and submits to the legislative commands of Allaah. This is the right of Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah upon every slave of Allaah. In the light of Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah and Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah, let us examine the response of Umer Ibn al-Khattab when he was blamed for deciding not to enter ash-Shaam (Greater Syria) because of a sudden outbreak of plague. He was told: Are you running away from something which Allaah has ordained? Omer replied: “Yes! We run away from that Allaah has ordained (in the case of plague) to another thing which Allaah has ordained.”

* Therefore if someone is touched  by hunger, thirst or cold, all of which are preordained by Allaah, all are from the Qadar; the response would be to eat, drink and put on clothes, thus checking the Qadar with Qadar to the best of his ability. He checks the fire with water or soil until it is extinguished. He extinguishes the Qadar of Allaah (fire) with another Qadar of Allaah (water). Similarly with illness, he checks it with another Qadar, medicine. And if an enemy of Islaam plots against the Muslims, then this too is by the Qadar of Allaah. It is incumbent, however on every Muslim to check this Qadar with another Qadar which Allaah loves, and it is the Jihaad by the hand (by enlisting in the Muslim army) or by spending wealth (to support the Muslim soldiers).

* In the case, where the Divine decree is to pass and it cannot be checked. The slave of Allaah must totally submit and recognize the Might of Allaah in His Rulings, Justice in His Decree and Wisdom behind His Decision. That whatever befalls him is not to miss him, and whatever missed him is not to befall him. Examples of such a case would be an accident causing the death of someone close, sudden loss of wealth or any other calamity; where one is totally incapable of averting the harm and thus can only be patient.
“And Verily, when We cause man to taste of Mercy from Us, he rejoices thereat, but when some ill befalls them because of some deeds which their hands have sent forth, then verily man (becomes) ingrate!”

Soorah ash-Shura (42): 48
* Finally, Allaah clarified that misfortunes and calamities are linked to their causes from evil deeds and wrong doings. Allaah had decreed that calamities befall someone because of his wrong doings. However, what reaches man of good, its causes are limitless. The Favor of Allaah could be because of some action of His slave, or simply due to Allaah’s Mercy. It is incumbent for the slave to be thankful to Allaah and seek for His forgiveness.
“Whatever of good reaches you (victory, provisions, health, etc.) is from Allaah, but whatever calamities (fear, stress, illness, etc.) befall you is from yourselves.”
Soorah an-Nisaa' (4): 79
And whatever of misfortunes befall you, it is because of what your hands have earned.”
Soorah ash-Shura (42): 30
“Say, O Muhammed (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) All things are from Allaah, so what is wrong with these people that they fail to understand any word?”
Soorah al-A'raf (7): 78
Some important points of this section….

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