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      Aqeedah - Belief

The Salaf's Guide to the understanding of
al-Qadaa' wal Qadar

FATE IN ISLAAM

by
Dr.Saleh as-Saleh

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The medium course is that of Ahlus-Sunnah, the followers of As-Salaf us Salih:

Whether a Muslim does good deeds like prayer and charity, or does a bad deed; he is indeed the doer of these deeds because he acted by his will. That is what Allah and His Messenger confirmed. Nevertheless, if you want to know how the Muslim’s deeds are part of Al-Qadar and the Mashee’ah of Allah, then ask the question: What made them do these deeds?

The answer: By their ability and will. That is why they deserve either reward for the good deeds, or punishment for the evil ones. Everyone agrees to this.

The next question is: Who is the Creator of their ability and will?
Certairly, Allah. Consequently their deeds are the creation of Allah. Remember that Allah brought to existence their deeds as well as all the means that made these deeds manifested.” {1}

The Verse: “You cannot will, unless Allah wills.”

(Soorah al-Insan (76):30),
is a confirmation of man’s will and that it is under Allah’s will. Also it is a response against the above two extremes.

Furthermore, the verse: “And You (Alone) we worship and You (Alone) we seek for help.”

(Soorah al-Faatihah:5),
confirms the slave’s own actions of worship, and that it occurs only after Allah’s help. If Allah ? does not help him and make him able and willing to do the worship, the slave would not be able to perform it. The verse is one more response against the concept of the Jabariyyah and Al-Qadariyyah.

“He (Abraham) said (to his people: Do you Worship that which you (yourselves) carve? While Allah has created you and what you make”

Soorah as-Saffat (37): 95-96

 The Ranks of Al-Qadar Together

The belief in Al-Qadar can only be accomplished when all four ranks of Al-Qadar are realized, because they are firmly interrelated. As Confirmed in the Qur'aan and Sunnah, Allah ? encompasses all creation, past, present, and future ones. He knows all about their entities, their deeds, their descriptions, etc. He ? recorded all of this in the Preserved Tablet in countless texts. All of Allah’s Creation is under His will, nothing escapes it. Whatever He wills, comes into being, and whatever He does not, would not. The slaves of Allah have will, abilities, and choices, all of which are created by Allah. Everything occurs according to the Foreknowle`ge of Allah; it is recorded, and follows a course that is linked to specific causes that ara part of Al-Qadar. Allah gave the believers means, ways, and various kinds of assistance and kept them away from impediments that may have weaken the strength of their belief, as the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said:

“Carry kn doing (good) deeds, for everybody will find easy to do such deeds as will lead him to his destined place for which he has been created. So, he who is destined to be among the happy (in the Hereafter), will find it easy to do the deeds characteristic of such people...”

Part of an authentic Hadeeth collected by Al-Bukhari in his Saheeh, V.6, Hadeeth #472.

Allaah forsake the wicked and the evil ones and left them to themselves and did not help them because they turned away from Him.

The Believer’s stand towards Al-Qadar has two levels:

First: Before the Taqdeer takes place he should seek the help from Allah, depend upon Him, and supplicate to Him.

Second: After the Taqdeer takes place if the Taqdeer is different from what he had worked for (lawful and good), he should be patient and accept the Taqdeer. If the Taqdeer is a favor that conforms with what he had set up and worked for, then he should be grateful to Allah and should praise Him for it. If he commits a sinful deed, he should ask Allah’s forgiveness and repent.

The Believer’s stand towards the Commands of Allah, has two levels:

Before Execution: a determination to fulfill the command and to seek Allah’s help for its execution.
After Execution: seeking Allah’s forgiveness due to any shortcomings in the execution, and praising Allah for all of His favors:

“So be patient (O Muhammad sallalahu alaihi wa salallam). Verily, Allah’s Promise is True, and seek forgiveness for your fault”

Soorah Ghafir (40): 55
But if you persevere patiently, and have Taqwa (be pious), then verily this is from the great matters which you must hold on with all your efforts.”
Soorah al-Imran (3): 186
The Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said “Cherish that which benefits you (in the Hereafter) and seek Allah’s help, and do not despair (or lose heart); and if anything befalls you (calamity, misfortune, or trouble) do not say, ‘If I had done such and such, then such and such would have occurred, but rather say: Allah did that what He had preordained to do, because the word “if” is an opening for Satan’s actions {2} .”
Shaikh ul Islam Ibn Taymeeyah in Al-Fatawa, V. 8., P.6

F O O T N O T E S

{1}  Based upon Sharhul Aqeedah Al-Wasitiyyah by Muhammad Khalil Al Har’raas, P.228-229, Published by Daar ul Hijrah (1414 Hj/1993).

{2}  Some may say, “If I had not done that (thing), then such and such would not have happened!”. So many times we hear people say the ‘ifs’ and ‘buts’, reflecting the lack of true belief in Al-Qadar. The Muslim’s belief in Al-Qadar is a source of strength and activity rather than a pretext for passiveness, pessimism, indolence, and inactivity. He acts, depending upon Allah and seeks His help. He does not cry over what might not please him. He looks forward keeping his aim high with dignity, hoping and trusting in Allah, the Exalted. Reported in Saheeh Muslim, V. 4, P. 1401, Hadeeth # 441.

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