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Tafseer - Explanation of the Qur'aan
Tafseer of Soorah al-Hujarat
verses 1 to 3 | verses 4 to 7 | Verses 8 - 10
VERSE 8 -
"And if two factions of the believers fight, you should make peace between them. But if one of them continues to do wrong to the other, fight the transgressor until they return to Allah's command. If they then do so, then make a just peace between them for verily Allah loves the just ones."
Dealing with Violence and Disputes
Allah, the Exalted has explained systematic ways of dealing with violence and disputes amongst Muslims. The first step towards settlements should be to convince both the entities to make peace and cease the aggression without making parties.
Secondly, if one entity does not stop fighting then his opposition must be aided until he returns to the command of Allah. The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) emphasized this issue saying: "Help your brother whether he is the oppressor or the oppressed." A Companion (radhi allahu anhu) asked: "O Messenger of Allah! Helping him when he is oppressed is clear, but how can I help him when he is the oppressor?" The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "You help him by preventing him from oppression." [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]
Finally, when the oppressor submits to the law of Allah, then peace should be made between them with justice. Allah says: "O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor. Allah is a better protector to both (than you). So follow not the desires lest you may avoid justice…" [Soorah an-Nisa (4): 135]
And the Messenger of Allah said: "Those who are in their judgments just to their families, and just to whatever they govern, will be in Allah's presence on the Day of Resurrection sitting on podiums of light on the right of the Throne." [Saheeh Muslim]
VERSE 9 -
"Verily, the believers are brothers so make peace between your two brothers that perhaps you may receive mercy."
After ordering just peace among the believers, Allah reveals the basis of this action - 'Islamic Brotherhood'. All Muslims are brothers and equal in the sight of Allah regardless of race, color and their disputes. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "It is not permitted for a Muslim to break relations with his Muslim brother for more than three nights each turning away from the other when they meet. And the best of them is he who is first to begin greeting the other with Salaams." [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]
The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) taught Brotherhood to the Muslims with great emphasis, he said: "A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim; he neither oppresses him nor does he fail him. Whoever removes a worldly grief from a believer, Allah will remove from him one of his grieves on the Day of Judgment. Whosoever shields a Muslim, Allah will shield him on the Day of Resurrection." [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]
"The believers in their mutual love are like the human body, where the eye is in agony, the entire body feels pain, when head aches, all the body will suffer." [Saheeh Muslim]
"The bonds of brotherhood between two Muslims are like parts of a house, one part strengthening the other." [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Islamic Brotherhood is not just theoretical but is practically illustrated from the fundamental aspects of Islam: -
The Salaah (Prayer) - All Muslims stand shoulder to shoulder while praying.
Zakaah (Annual Charity) - Charity is highly encouraged in Islam and made obligatory for the wealthy Muslim to give a portion of their yearly savings to his poor Muslim brother.
Hajj (Pilgrimage) - Muslims (men) wear a similar dress of two sheets of cloth indicating the equality of Islamic brotherhood.
VERSE 10 -
"O Believers! People should not scorn others for perhaps they may be better than them. Neither should women scorn other women, for they may also be better than them."
This verse introduces certain prohibitions necessary for the establishment of successful Islamic Society. Allah forbids the believers from mockery, scorning or looking down at someone - Scorn is the product of Pride, which is itself prohibited in Islam. And: "Indeed He (Allah) does not love the proud" [Soorah an-Nahl: 23]
Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Allah All-Mighty said: "Pride is My cloak, and Glory is My Wrap, so for he who competes with Me in either of these, I will cast him into the Fire." [Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah]
Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "If you were not sinners, I would fear what is worse for you: Pride, Pride (Ujb)."
Al-Ujb in this Hadeeth implies arrogance due to self-praise. It borders on the slave who is blessed by Allah with His Ability of hiding imperfections and sins. Allah hides his sins and imperfections from the people and yet he behaves in a manner as though he is better than some.
Al-Ujb may or may not be apparent, and if manifested outwardly it is called Pride or Arrogance. It creeps unto us when ideal discussions take place criticizing the sinner, though we do not name him. It is a way of 'showing your pride without showing it' And the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "He will not enter Paradise who has even a speck of pride in his heart." [Saheeh Muslim]
Categories of Pride and their Cure
Ego (the self as distinguished from others) Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Indeed, Allah revealed to me: Humble yourself until none is proud over another and none is oppressive over another." [Saheeh Muslim]
Each additional thing that one becomes proud of, builds his ego or the contentment of his self. This is witnessed in the behavior of Iblees. When Allah ordered angels and Iblees to bow to Adam (alaihi as-salaam). Iblees refused to do so arguing that he was formed from smokeless fire, and thus was better than Adam (alaihi as-salaam), who was created from dust. [(7): 12]
He was too proud to obey Allah's command: "He said: 'I am better than him (Adam)." [Soorah Saad : 76]
The cure of Pride is to remember that we are created from a substance not worth mentioning: "Has there not been, over man, a period of time when he was nothing worthy of mention?" [Soorah al-Insan (9): 1]
"Did we not create you from a fluid of no value?" [Soorah al-Mursalaat (71): 20]
Thus, be mindful of the saying of Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam): "…and none humbles himself to Allah, but Allah raises him." [Saheeh Muslim]
Let him, who is proud of his knowledge analyze the Hadeeth of Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "…And a person who learned knowledge and taught it, and recited the Qur'aan, so Allah brought this man before Him and pointed out His Favor, which the man recognized. He is asked: "What did you do with it?" He says: 'I learned knowledge and I taught it, and I recited the Qur'aan for you.' So He (Allah) says: "You lie! In fact you learned so that it would be said of you, 'He is a scholar' and you recited the Qur'aan so that it would be said of you, 'He is a Qari' and it was said." Then it will be ordered that he be dragged upon his face into the Fire…" [Saheeh Muslim]
Let him, who is proud of his deeds, know that deeds are only accepted on the basis of two conditions, they being;
1- Sincerity (Ikhlas) - The deed should be performed for the sake of Allah Alone without intending to be seen or heard by others nor attaining titles and positions.
2- Deeds should be according to the guidance of Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and nothing beyond this criterion.
The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Indeed, the first of people upon whom the judgment will be passed on the Day of Resurrection is a man who sought martyrdom. When he appears before Allah, he is made to recognize his Favors. It is said, What did you do with it?" He says: "I fought for you until martyrdom.' It is said: 'You lie! You fought so that it would be said: "He is brave, and so it was said." Then it will be ordered that he be dragged upon his face until he is cast into Fire…" [Saheeh Muslim]
"Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers, their selves and their wealth for which there is Paradise for them…" [Soorah at-Tawbah: 111]
He who is proud of his possessions should know that the Eventual end of all possessions is with Allah, and he possesses nothing but it is a test for him. He should use them sincerely for the pleasure of Allah. How often do we find ourselves responsible for more than we are capable of maintaining? In such situations we will certainly be unjust to something. Thus, to give each thing its right one must content himself with few. Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Whoever among you arises in the morning feeling a sense of security, in good health, having his food for the day, then he has gathered what the world has to offer him." [Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah]
There was once a camel that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) owned, it was undefeated in racing. The Muslims were proud of this camel. One day the camel lost a race, this saddened the Muslims. On this occasion, the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) informed them: "Indeed, it is the right upon Allah that nothing in this life is raised, but He lowers it." [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Again we may quote here the remainder of the Hadeeth mentioned earlier; where on the Day of Resurrection a man who was blessed with wealth in his earthly life is asked what he did with it, and he replied: "… I neglected no opportunity which You would like this wealth to be spent, but I spent it for Your sake.' Allah says: "You lie! You spent it only so that it would be said: 'He is generous' and so it was said: "Then it will be ordered that he be dragged upon his face until he is cast into Fire." [Saheeh Muslim]
Race, Notable Lineage, Nationalism and Patriotism
The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Indeed Allah has removed from you the blind loyalties of Jahiliyah and the pride for ancestry. Either be a pious believer, or a miserable proud. (All of) you are children of Adam (alaihi as-salaam) and Adam (alaihi as-salaam) is from dust. Let some men cease to take pride in others who are nothing but burning coals for the Hell-Fire, it will be easier for Allah to handle them than a dung-beetle driving his nose into filth." [Abu Dawood and Ahmad]
Moreover, he (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) also said: "…whoever invites to tribalism, or aids in tribalism and is killed, he dies the death of jahiliyah (ignorant state of man before the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)) … he is not of me and I am not of him." [Saheeh Muslim and An-Nisaee]
After the prohibition of Scorn, Allah explains why this act is unwise. He said, the scorned may be superior to the scorner, just as Adam (alaihi as-salaam) was superior to Iblees.
Then Allah specifically warns the women, although He had previously used the word 'people' which includes both men and women. It is to bring special attention to the women and in order to emphasize to the men that they should protect their wives and families from boasting.
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